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Blood Eosinophils and Response to Maintenance Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment. Data from the FLAME Trial. indacaterol/glycopyrronium provides superior or similar benefits over salmeterol/fluticasone regardless of blood eosinophil levels in patients with COPD The incidence of pneumonia was higher in patients receiving salmeterol/fluticasone than indacaterol/glycopyrronium in both the <2% and ≥2% subgroups Indacaterol/glycopyrronium was significantly superior to salmeterol/fluticasone for the prevention of exacerbations
Waist circumference a better indicator of health than BMI is a better indicator of increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes or any cause.
2000 classification of idiopathic interstitial lung diseases The 2000 classification consists of seven entities of idiopathic interstitial diseases which are defined on clinical, radiological and pathological criteria: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, non-specific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. The most frequent is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, which has a poor prognosis.
Diagnostic Yield and Complications of Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy for Interstitial Lung Disease. A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis The diagnostic accuracy of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy cannot be determined given the absence of studies directly comparing cryobiopsy diagnoses with diagnoses derived from surgical lung biopsies interpreted within multidisciplinary discussions. The histopathological and multidisciplinary discussion-based diagnostic yield of transbronchial cryobiopsy appears high, but with variable frequencies of complications dominated by pneumothorax and moderate-to-severe hemorrhage.
Postoperative Pulmonary Complications Br J Anaesth. 2017;118(3):317-334. Changes to the respiratory system occur immediately on induction of general anaesthesia: respiratory drive and muscle function are altered, lung volumes reduced, and atelectasis develops in > 75% of patients receiving a neuromuscular blocking drug..The respiratory system may take 6 weeks to return to its preoperative state after general anaesthesia for major surgery. clinicians should be aware of non-modifiable and modifiable factors in order to recognize those at risk and optimize their care.Preventative measures include preoperative optimization of co-morbidities, smoking cessation, and correction of anaemia, in addition to intraoperative protective ventilation strategies and appropriate management of neuromuscular blocking drugs. Protective ventilation includes low tidal volumes, which must be calculated according to the patient's ideal body weight. the most beneficial level of PEEP is required,
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