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'chronic hypercapnic patients'
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COPD patients significant effects on survival have been shown for several interventions , including. high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation should initiated as the main training modality during his Pulmonary rehabilitation programme, weight gain in underweight patients , non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic hypercapnic patients and lung volume reduction surgery or endobronchial valve treatment in patients with upper-lobe predominant emphysema and poor exercise capacity
COPD-OSA Overlap Syndrome The recognition of co-existing OSA in COPD patients has important clinical relevance as the management of patients with overlap syndrome is different from COPDalone, and the survival of overlap patients not treated with nocturnal positive airway pressure is significantly inferior to those overlap patients appropriately treated.
COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases or chronic bronchitis) Assessment of the risk of death in this patients depend on their BODE Index B stand for BMI, O- Obstruction depending on FEV1, D - Shortness of breath OR dyspnea using MMRC scale , E - Exercise capacity, measured by 6 minutes walk test 6MWT.This index calculated using a scale of 0 to 3 for each parameter, depending on severity. except BMI scale different < 21 is 0 and more than >21 is 1. BODE score of 7 to 10 falls in the higher chance of mortality. Other factors have also been associated with increased moribidity and mortality in COPD , For example : acute exacerbation of COPD, Hospitalization, cardiac comorbidities Survival benefit are smoking cessation and lung volume reduction surgery in selected patients .Oxygen is beneficial who are hypoxemic on room air. None of the medications consistently demonstrated to prolong life.
Blood Eosinophils and Response to Maintenance Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment. Data from the FLAME Trial. indacaterol/glycopyrronium provides superior or similar benefits over salmeterol/fluticasone regardless of blood eosinophil levels in patients with COPD The incidence of pneumonia was higher in patients receiving salmeterol/fluticasone than indacaterol/glycopyrronium in both the <2% and ≥2% subgroups Indacaterol/glycopyrronium was significantly superior to salmeterol/fluticasone for the prevention of exacerbations
Personalised Medicine for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prevalent condition sboth significant heterogeneity within each of these conditions and additionally significant overlap in many of the clinical and inflammatory features useful clinical and immunological biomarkers which inform about prognosis and response to therapy have emerged in both asthma and COPD. These biomarkers will allow both better targeting of existing treatments and the identification of those patients who will respond to novel therapies which are now becoming available Delivery of precision medicine in airways disease is now feasible and is a core component of a personalised healthcare delivery in asthma and COPD
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