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What is a chest infection and what causes it? Acute bronchitis This is an infection of the large airways in the lungs (bronchi). Acute bronchitis is common and is often due to a viral infection. Infection with a germ (bacterium) is a less common cause. Pneumonia This is a serious infection of the lung. Treatment with medicines called antibiotics is usually needed. How common are chest infections? Chest infections are very common, especially during the autumn and winter. They often occur after a cold or flu. Anyone can get a chest infection but they are more common in: Young children and the elderly. People who smoke. People with long-term chest problems such as asthma. What are the symptoms of a chest infection? The main symptoms are a chesty cough, breathing difficulties and chest pain. You may also have headaches and have a high temperature (fever). The symptoms of an infection of the large airways (bronchi) in the lungs (acute bronchitis) and a serious lung infection (pneumonia) may be similar; however, pneumonia symptoms are usually more severe
Waist circumference a better indicator of health than BMI is a better indicator of increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes or any cause.
Can I prevent a chest infection? There are measures you can take to help prevent chest infection and to stop the spread of it to others. You can pass a chest infection on to others through coughing and sneezing. So if you have a chest infection, it's important to cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze and to wash your hands regularly. Throw away used tissues immediately. Immunisation against the pneumococcus germ (bacterium) - the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia - and the annual flu (influenza) virus immunisation are advised if you are at increased risk of developing these infections
What about cold and cough remedies? You can buy many other cold and cough remedies at pharmacies. There is very little evidence of any benefit from taking cold and cough remedies. Over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medicines should not be given to children aged under 6. There is no evidence that they work and they can cause side-effects, such as allergic reactions, effects on sleep, or hallucinations. These medicines are available for children aged 6-12 but they are also best avoided in this age group
Lung cancer (cancer of the lung) is common worldwide. Around 8 in 10 cases develop in people over the age of 60 years, usually in smokers. If lung cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, there is a chance of a cure. In general, the more advanced the cancer (the more it has grown and spread), the less chance that treatment will be curative. However, treatment can often slow the progress of the cancer.
Multicentre evaluation of multidisciplinary team meeting agreement on diagnosis in diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a case-cohort study Agreement between MDTMs for diagnosis in diffuse lung disease is acceptable and good for a diagnosis of IPF, as validated by the non-significant greater prognostic separation of an IPF diagnosis made by MDTMs than the separation of a diagnosis made by individual clinicians or radiologists. Furthermore, MDTMs made the diagnosis of IPF with higher confidence and more frequently than did clinicians or radiologists. This difference is of particular importance, because accurate and consistent diagnoses of IPF are needed if clinical outcomes are to be optimised. Inter-multidisciplinary team agreement for a diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis is low, highlighting an urgent need for standardised diagnostic guidelines for this disease.
A definitive diagnosis of pleural TB depends on the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum, pleural fluid or pleural biopsy specimens, or the demonstration of caseating granulomas in the parietal pleura. However, lymphocytic exudades with a high ADA content (>35–40 U/L) are generally accepted as tuberculous in the correct clinical context. ● When the cause of a pleural effusion remains obscure after the standard initial workup, which may eventually include pleural biopsy, medical history and all available diagnostic examinations should be revisited. Most of these effusions will resolve spontaneously
Severe eosinophilic asthma: a roadmap to consensus Adult-onset asthma patients with a high blood eosinophil count (⩾0.3×109 per L) have been found to have a distinct phenotype of severe asthma with frequent exacerbations and poor prognosis Persistent airflow limitation and distal inflammation with air trapping are common in these patients, as is upper airway pathology such as chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis .
The development of biomarker-driven targeted therapy has resulted in substantial benefits for patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, and rearrangements involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene or the ROS1 gene. For patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (eg, gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib) have a superior objective response rate and progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in the first-line setting. For patients who have disease progression on EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and with NSCLC with an EGFR T790M mutation osimertinib has demonstrated a superior response rate and progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in the second-line setting.4 For patients with ALK rearrangements ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (eg, crizotinib, ceritinib) have a superior response rate and progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in the first-line setting, and for patients who experience disease progression, ceritinib and alectinib have demonstrated clinically relevant response rates and progression-free survival..For patients with ROS1 rearrangements, targeted therapy, is associated with a higher response rate and longer progression-free survival than has been observed with chemotherapy. These molecular alterations are more common in NSCLC with adenocarcinoma histology and in the minority of patients with a light smoking or never smoking history. The success of these targeted therapies in molecularly defined subsets of NSCLC made the development of targeted therapies and identification of predictive biomarkers a focus of thoracic oncology research. Routine molecular testing is now the standard of care for patients with NSCLC with adenocarcinoma histology