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'continuous positive airway'
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An Update on Lymphocyte Subtypes in Asthma and Airway Disease Inflammation is a hallmark of many airway diseases. Improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of airway disease will facilitate the transition in our understanding from phenotypes to endotypes, thereby improving our ability to target treatments based on pathophysiologic characteristics. For example, allergic asthma has long been considered to be driven by an allergen-specific T helper 2 response. However, clinical and mechanistic studies have begun to shed light on the role of other cell subsets in the pathogenesis and regulation of lung inflammation.
COPD-OSA Overlap Syndrome The recognition of co-existing OSA in COPD patients has important clinical relevance as the management of patients with overlap syndrome is different from COPDalone, and the survival of overlap patients not treated with nocturnal positive airway pressure is significantly inferior to those overlap patients appropriately treated.
What is a chest infection and what causes it? Acute bronchitis This is an infection of the large airways in the lungs (bronchi). Acute bronchitis is common and is often due to a viral infection. Infection with a germ (bacterium) is a less common cause. Pneumonia This is a serious infection of the lung. Treatment with medicines called antibiotics is usually needed. How common are chest infections? Chest infections are very common, especially during the autumn and winter. They often occur after a cold or flu. Anyone can get a chest infection but they are more common in: Young children and the elderly. People who smoke. People with long-term chest problems such as asthma. What are the symptoms of a chest infection? The main symptoms are a chesty cough, breathing difficulties and chest pain. You may also have headaches and have a high temperature (fever). The symptoms of an infection of the large airways (bronchi) in the lungs (acute bronchitis) and a serious lung infection (pneumonia) may be similar; however, pneumonia symptoms are usually more severe
Diagnosis of asthma–COPD overlap: the five commandments 1) A patient with asthma may develop non-fully reversible airflow obstruction but this is not COPD, not even ACO; it is obstructive asthma. 2) A patient with asthma who smokes may also develop non-fully reversible airflow obstruction, which differs from obstructive asthma and from “pure” COPD. This is the most frequent type of patient with ACO. 3) Some patients who smoke and develop COPD may have a genetic Th2 background (even in the absence of a previous history of asthma) and can be identified by high eosinophil counts in peripheral blood.These individuals could be included under the umbrella term of ACO. 4) A patient with COPD and a positive bronchodilator test (>200 mL and >12% FEV1 change) has reversible COPD but is not an asthmatic, or even ACO. 5) A patient with COPD and a very positive bronchodilator test (>400 mL FEV1 change) is more likely to have some features of asthma and could also be classified as ACO.
Cigarette smoke damages the lining of the airways and makes the lungs more prone to infection. So stopping smoking will lessen your risk of developing lung infections.
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