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Found Update results for
'long term chest problems'
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What is a chest infection and what causes it? Acute bronchitis This is an infection of the large airways in the lungs (bronchi). Acute bronchitis is common and is often due to a viral infection. Infection with a germ (bacterium) is a less common cause. Pneumonia This is a serious infection of the lung. Treatment with medicines called antibiotics is usually needed. How common are chest infections? Chest infections are very common, especially during the autumn and winter. They often occur after a cold or flu. Anyone can get a chest infection but they are more common in: Young children and the elderly. People who smoke. People with long-term chest problems such as asthma. What are the symptoms of a chest infection? The main symptoms are a chesty cough, breathing difficulties and chest pain. You may also have headaches and have a high temperature (fever). The symptoms of an infection of the large airways (bronchi) in the lungs (acute bronchitis) and a serious lung infection (pneumonia) may be similar; however, pneumonia symptoms are usually more severe
Can I prevent a chest infection? There are measures you can take to help prevent chest infection and to stop the spread of it to others. You can pass a chest infection on to others through coughing and sneezing. So if you have a chest infection, it's important to cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze and to wash your hands regularly. Throw away used tissues immediately. Immunisation against the pneumococcus germ (bacterium) - the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia - and the annual flu (influenza) virus immunisation are advised if you are at increased risk of developing these infections
EBUS lymphnode 1. Size short axis : less or more than 1cm 2. Shape : Oval or round ; when ratio of short axis vs . long axis of lymph node is smaller than 1.5cm , the lymph node defined as round. If ration more than 1..5cm it is oval. 3. Margin indistinct or distinct : if more than 50% is clearly visible with a high echoic border they are distinct . If less than 50% and margin unclear determined indistinct. 4.Echogenecity; Homogenous or heterogenous. 5. Presence or absence of central hilar structure CHS CHS defined as linear flat hyperechoic area in the center of lymph node which indicate prediction of metastatic L node
Panic Attacks and Sleep Disorders Tests such as overnight sleep studies, manometry, pH monitoring, or electroencephalography can help physicians determine if patients complaining of nocturnal panic attacks have possible sleep disorders
COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases or chronic bronchitis) Assessment of the risk of death in this patients depend on their BODE Index B stand for BMI, O- Obstruction depending on FEV1, D - Shortness of breath OR dyspnea using MMRC scale , E - Exercise capacity, measured by 6 minutes walk test 6MWT.This index calculated using a scale of 0 to 3 for each parameter, depending on severity. except BMI scale different < 21 is 0 and more than >21 is 1. BODE score of 7 to 10 falls in the higher chance of mortality. Other factors have also been associated with increased moribidity and mortality in COPD , For example : acute exacerbation of COPD, Hospitalization, cardiac comorbidities Survival benefit are smoking cessation and lung volume reduction surgery in selected patients .Oxygen is beneficial who are hypoxemic on room air. None of the medications consistently demonstrated to prolong life.
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