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The development of biomarker-driven targeted therapy has resulted in substantial benefits for patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, and rearrangements involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene or the ROS1 gene. For patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (eg, gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib) have a superior objective response rate and progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in the first-line setting. For patients who have disease progression on EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and with NSCLC with an EGFR T790M mutation osimertinib has demonstrated a superior response rate and progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in the second-line setting.4 For patients with ALK rearrangements ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (eg, crizotinib, ceritinib) have a superior response rate and progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in the first-line setting, and for patients who experience disease progression, ceritinib and alectinib have demonstrated clinically relevant response rates and progression-free survival..For patients with ROS1 rearrangements, targeted therapy, is associated with a higher response rate and longer progression-free survival than has been observed with chemotherapy. These molecular alterations are more common in NSCLC with adenocarcinoma histology and in the minority of patients with a light smoking or never smoking history. The success of these targeted therapies in molecularly defined subsets of NSCLC made the development of targeted therapies and identification of predictive biomarkers a focus of thoracic oncology research. Routine molecular testing is now the standard of care for patients with NSCLC with adenocarcinoma histology
Blood Eosinophils and Response to Maintenance Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment. Data from the FLAME Trial. indacaterol/glycopyrronium provides superior or similar benefits over salmeterol/fluticasone regardless of blood eosinophil levels in patients with COPD The incidence of pneumonia was higher in patients receiving salmeterol/fluticasone than indacaterol/glycopyrronium in both the <2% and ≥2% subgroups Indacaterol/glycopyrronium was significantly superior to salmeterol/fluticasone for the prevention of exacerbations
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Accelerates FEV1 Decline in Asthmatic Patients. Asthmatic patients with OSA had substantially greater declines in FEV1 than those without OSA. Moreover, CPAP treatment alleviated the decline of FEV1 in asthma patients with severe OSA
key to good health 1. cutting out all bread, pasta and rice. 2.No snacking but eat until you feel full. 3.Ensuring you get at least two-to-four tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil per day, and a small handful of nuts. 4.As there's no fear of fat, you can eat butter, cheese and full-fat yoghurt. 5.Walking at least 30 minutes a day. 6.Aiming to get at least 7 hours sleep a night. 7.Concentrating on reducing stress through breathing exercises. No bread, pasta, rice, or added sugars, including fruit juice, honey, smoothies and syrups. You also need to cut out industrial seed oils, such as sunflower and soybean oil. Alcohol is allowed, as long as you keep within the guideline of 14 units a week. extra virgin olive oil, nuts, whole fruit and vegetables and oily fish, so the plan is based around them. you not sit for more than 45 minutes at a time, as even getting up for two minutes and having a stretch has significant health benefits. I advise fasting for one 24-hour period each week, without ever going to bed hungry.you fast from dinner to dinner the next day.consume fluids, including tea, coffee and water during that time. .sleeping for 7 hours. Positive social interactions and good relationships help mitigate the impact of external stress, which is also linked to inflammation.
To Eat or Not to Eat? The Skinny on Intermittent Fasting Diets are a dime a dozen, so it’s easy to lose sight of the important questions like how does the diet work, or what are the benefits and risks associated with it? The latest nutrition trend is intermittent fasting. This type of diet is very popular among athletes, but many weight-loss seekers also tout it as the ultimate slim-down method. So we decided to take a closer look at this kind of fasting and share with you what we found. A young woman who is preparing a salad. What is intermittent fasting? As the name suggests, intermittent fasting is an eating pattern that cycles between periods of fasting and eating. Strictly speaking, it is not a diet but more of an “eating schedule.” You are not told what to eat, but you do have to stick to specific times. There are several methods of intermittent fasting. The most popular ones are 16/8 method: This is known as the Leangains method. Here, you have a feeding window of eight hours and a fasting period of 16 hours. Put simply, the normal fasting period while you sleep is simply extended by a few hours. You can skip breakfast, for instance, and consume your first meal at noon and keep eating up to eight o’clock in the evening. 5:2 diet: The idea is that for two days a week you reduce your calorie intake to a maximum of 500 to 600 calories per day. The days do not have to be back-to-back. The other five days you can eat what you want within reason. Eat Stop Eat: This type of intermittent fasting alternates between fasting and non-fasting days. You eat what you want for 24 hours and then take a complete break from food on the following day. You repeat this pattern once or twice a week. Calorie-free beverages are allowed, as they are in the other methods as well. It also changes your hormonal balance But intermittent fasting does far more than just restrict your calorie intake. It also changes the hormones in your body so they can make better use of your fat stores. The following changes take place: Intermittent fasting improves your insulin sensitivity, especially in combination with exercise. This is very important for people struggling with their weight because low insulin levels in the blood are associated with better fat burning. The opposite of this is insulin resistance. Studies have shown that increased body weight can interfere with insulin’s ability to reduce blood sugar levels, resulting in more insulin being released. This in turn promotes the storage of fat. The secretion of human growth hormone (HGH) increases, speeding up protein synthesis and making fat available as an energy source. This means, in simple terms, that you burn fat and pack on muscle faster. This is why HGH is often taken in large quantities by the bodybuilding community as a doping agent. Furthermore, according to research, fasting activates autophagy, which removes damaged cells, contributes to cell renewal and generally supports your body’s regenerative processes. A bowl with greek salad next to a measuring tape. You will lose weight if you do it right If you skip meals and create a calorie deficit, you will lose weight. That is, unless you compensate for the fasting periods with foods that are packed with fat and sugar. It can happen: This type of eating pattern does not tell you what foods you should or shouldn’t eat. Studies have found that intermittent fasting (if done properly) can be just as effective at preventing Type 2 diabetes as a daily reduction in calories. Plus, your body can learn to process the foods consumed during the feeding window better and more efficiently. Additional research has shown that a combination of the 16/8 method and strength training (with your own body weight, as well as free weights) can reduce more body fat than strength training alone. This also means that it is particularly effective when combined with regular workouts. Note: This type of dieting is not necessarily suitable for people with diabetes, high blood pressure or pregnant & breastfeeding women. You should check with your doctor before changing your eating pattern. Don’t forget about the social aspect So, fasting can be an effective weight loss method, but have you ever considered the social aspect? Picture this: Friends have invited you to a birthday brunch on Sunday. The breakfast buffet is replete with delicious muesli, fresh fruit, yogurt, scrambled eggs, vegetables, salmon… Your friends dig right into their sumptuous breakfast. And you? You sit next to them and sip on your water. After all, it is only ten o’clock in the morning and you can’t eat your first meal until noon. Plus, you have dinner plans that same evening at 7 pm – with an eight-hour window, you have to make the most of it. If you plan your fasting window cleverly, you can still enjoy meals together with your friends and family. But, generally speaking, this type of eating pattern doesn’t leave much room for spontaneity and flexibility. A family who are sitting at a table filled with good food in the garden. What can you do when hunger strikes? Many people who try intermittent fasting complain about hunger pains, fatigue, exhaustion and cravings, which makes sense considering that you skip meals. But others say that the hunger goes away once you have withstood the first “critical” phase (about two days). If your hunger gets too bad in between, you can try drinking some green tea or black coffee to help you get by until your next meal. Bottom line: Intermittent fasting is definitely not for everyone, but it can be a good method for reducing body fat. You should definitely watch what foods you eat during the feeding window, so don’t just stuff yourself with burgers, fries and pizza. The focus here, as elsewhere, should be on eating a healthy, balanced diet.
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