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To Eat or Not to Eat? The Skinny on Intermittent Fasting Diets are a dime a dozen, so it’s easy to lose sight of the important questions like how does the diet work, or what are the benefits and risks associated with it? The latest nutrition trend is intermittent fasting. This type of diet is very popular among athletes, but many weight-loss seekers also tout it as the ultimate slim-down method. So we decided to take a closer look at this kind of fasting and share with you what we found. A young woman who is preparing a salad. What is intermittent fasting? As the name suggests, intermittent fasting is an eating pattern that cycles between periods of fasting and eating. Strictly speaking, it is not a diet but more of an “eating schedule.” You are not told what to eat, but you do have to stick to specific times. There are several methods of intermittent fasting. The most popular ones are 16/8 method: This is known as the Leangains method. Here, you have a feeding window of eight hours and a fasting period of 16 hours. Put simply, the normal fasting period while you sleep is simply extended by a few hours. You can skip breakfast, for instance, and consume your first meal at noon and keep eating up to eight o’clock in the evening. 5:2 diet: The idea is that for two days a week you reduce your calorie intake to a maximum of 500 to 600 calories per day. The days do not have to be back-to-back. The other five days you can eat what you want within reason. Eat Stop Eat: This type of intermittent fasting alternates between fasting and non-fasting days. You eat what you want for 24 hours and then take a complete break from food on the following day. You repeat this pattern once or twice a week. Calorie-free beverages are allowed, as they are in the other methods as well. It also changes your hormonal balance But intermittent fasting does far more than just restrict your calorie intake. It also changes the hormones in your body so they can make better use of your fat stores. The following changes take place: Intermittent fasting improves your insulin sensitivity, especially in combination with exercise. This is very important for people struggling with their weight because low insulin levels in the blood are associated with better fat burning. The opposite of this is insulin resistance. Studies have shown that increased body weight can interfere with insulin’s ability to reduce blood sugar levels, resulting in more insulin being released. This in turn promotes the storage of fat. The secretion of human growth hormone (HGH) increases, speeding up protein synthesis and making fat available as an energy source. This means, in simple terms, that you burn fat and pack on muscle faster. This is why HGH is often taken in large quantities by the bodybuilding community as a doping agent. Furthermore, according to research, fasting activates autophagy, which removes damaged cells, contributes to cell renewal and generally supports your body’s regenerative processes. A bowl with greek salad next to a measuring tape. You will lose weight if you do it right If you skip meals and create a calorie deficit, you will lose weight. That is, unless you compensate for the fasting periods with foods that are packed with fat and sugar. It can happen: This type of eating pattern does not tell you what foods you should or shouldn’t eat. Studies have found that intermittent fasting (if done properly) can be just as effective at preventing Type 2 diabetes as a daily reduction in calories. Plus, your body can learn to process the foods consumed during the feeding window better and more efficiently. Additional research has shown that a combination of the 16/8 method and strength training (with your own body weight, as well as free weights) can reduce more body fat than strength training alone. This also means that it is particularly effective when combined with regular workouts. Note: This type of dieting is not necessarily suitable for people with diabetes, high blood pressure or pregnant & breastfeeding women. You should check with your doctor before changing your eating pattern. Don’t forget about the social aspect So, fasting can be an effective weight loss method, but have you ever considered the social aspect? Picture this: Friends have invited you to a birthday brunch on Sunday. The breakfast buffet is replete with delicious muesli, fresh fruit, yogurt, scrambled eggs, vegetables, salmon… Your friends dig right into their sumptuous breakfast. And you? You sit next to them and sip on your water. After all, it is only ten o’clock in the morning and you can’t eat your first meal until noon. Plus, you have dinner plans that same evening at 7 pm – with an eight-hour window, you have to make the most of it. If you plan your fasting window cleverly, you can still enjoy meals together with your friends and family. But, generally speaking, this type of eating pattern doesn’t leave much room for spontaneity and flexibility. A family who are sitting at a table filled with good food in the garden. What can you do when hunger strikes? Many people who try intermittent fasting complain about hunger pains, fatigue, exhaustion and cravings, which makes sense considering that you skip meals. But others say that the hunger goes away once you have withstood the first “critical” phase (about two days). If your hunger gets too bad in between, you can try drinking some green tea or black coffee to help you get by until your next meal. Bottom line: Intermittent fasting is definitely not for everyone, but it can be a good method for reducing body fat. You should definitely watch what foods you eat during the feeding window, so don’t just stuff yourself with burgers, fries and pizza. The focus here, as elsewhere, should be on eating a healthy, balanced diet.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetes Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic treatable sleep disorder and a frequent comorbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardinal features of OSA, including intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, have been linked to abnormal glucose metabolism. The relationship between OSA and type 2 diabetes may be bidirectional in nature given that diabetic neuropathy can affect central control of respiration and upper airway neural reflexes promoting sleep-disordered breathing. Despite the strong association between OSA and type 2 diabetes, the effect of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on markers of glucose metabolism has been conflicting. Variability with CPAP adherence may be one of the key factors behind these conflicting results. Lastly, accumulated data suggests an association between OSA and type 1 diabetes as well as gestational diabetes.
An Update on Lymphocyte Subtypes in Asthma and Airway Disease Inflammation is a hallmark of many airway diseases. Improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of airway disease will facilitate the transition in our understanding from phenotypes to endotypes, thereby improving our ability to target treatments based on pathophysiologic characteristics. For example, allergic asthma has long been considered to be driven by an allergen-specific T helper 2 response. However, clinical and mechanistic studies have begun to shed light on the role of other cell subsets in the pathogenesis and regulation of lung inflammation.
The Treatment of Diabetes Through Improved Quality of Sleep about half of those who suffer from Type 2 diabetes suffer from obstructive sleep apnea, independent of obesity, as was previously unknown. existence of sleep apnea in diabetics creates insulin resistance and increased fasting glucose without regard to whether the patient also suffers from obesity. That is, if you suffer from sleep apnea, and it remains untreated the insulin that is vital to your quality of life, may not be working to its full potential. Further, the more severe the sleep apnea, the greater the degree of increased resistance to insulin and fasting glucose we find in your body. This validates the idea that a correlation exists between diabetes and sleep apnea. This correlation requires that treatment for diabetes be done in combination with treatment for sleep apnea so as to achieve the best results.
Diagnosis of asthma–COPD overlap: the five commandments 1) A patient with asthma may develop non-fully reversible airflow obstruction but this is not COPD, not even ACO; it is obstructive asthma. 2) A patient with asthma who smokes may also develop non-fully reversible airflow obstruction, which differs from obstructive asthma and from “pure” COPD. This is the most frequent type of patient with ACO. 3) Some patients who smoke and develop COPD may have a genetic Th2 background (even in the absence of a previous history of asthma) and can be identified by high eosinophil counts in peripheral blood.These individuals could be included under the umbrella term of ACO. 4) A patient with COPD and a positive bronchodilator test (>200 mL and >12% FEV1 change) has reversible COPD but is not an asthmatic, or even ACO. 5) A patient with COPD and a very positive bronchodilator test (>400 mL FEV1 change) is more likely to have some features of asthma and could also be classified as ACO.
Severe eosinophilic asthma: a roadmap to consensus Adult-onset asthma patients with a high blood eosinophil count (⩾0.3×109 per L) have been found to have a distinct phenotype of severe asthma with frequent exacerbations and poor prognosis Persistent airflow limitation and distal inflammation with air trapping are common in these patients, as is upper airway pathology such as chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis .